? ?? ?? ?? Every winter is a gateway for many elderly people with chronic diseases. The prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases must pay attention to and strengthen the prevention and treatment of risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, hyperhomocysteinemia and chronic disease management. Zeng Jing, director of the nutrition department of the Guangdong Provincial General Hospital of the armed police, gave the following advice to the majority of patients with hypertension from the aspects of diet and nutrition.


? ?? ?? ?? Hypertension is divided into essential hypertension and secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension, as its name implies, is associated with symptoms or complications of other diseases, such as acute and chronic kidney disease, renal vascular stenosis, endocrine diseases, pregnancy may have increased blood pressure. The dietary principle of secondary hypertension should focus on the primary disease and take into account the dietary precautions of hypertension. essential hypertension, that is, hypertension is considered as a lifestyle disease. strengthening lifestyle regulation and chronic disease management has a positive effect on the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension.


? ?? ?? ?? To reduce the risk of hypertension, Mr Tsang said, weight control was needed to avoid being overweight and obese. People who are overweight are three to four times more likely to have high blood pressure, and having a big waist (male ≥90cm, female ≥85cm) can also increase the risk of high blood pressure. Rational diet, regular diet, control is the basis of weight management. Secondly, eating too salty, excessive intake of sodium in the diet, insufficient intake of potassium and insufficient intake of antioxidant vitamins are also risk factors for hypertension. Third, quit smoking and alcohol. Fourth, work and rest should be combined to strengthen exercise. Mental stress, lack of physical activity, staying up late and other bad lifestyle are risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes.


? ?? ?? ?? ? Zeng Jing suggested that patients who have been diagnosed with hypertension should adopt a healthy lifestyle, adhere to the doctor's advice to take antihypertensive drugs, and do not take the medicine according to their own feelings irregularly; adhere to regular monitoring of blood pressure and physical examination. In addition to regular rest, combination of work and rest, relaxation of mind, adherence to physical activity, diet also needs to change bad eating habits, food selection and cooking style to pay attention to some details.


? ?? ?? ?? ?1。 Low salt diet. The Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016), which advises adults to eat no more than 6g of salt a day, showed that the daily intake of salt was between 9 and 12g in Guangdong, where the diet is considered "light ". In addition to using a low-salt diet to control the amount of salt used in cooking, there are some details to pay attention to: eat less pickled and smoked food; put salt in the later stage of cooking, that is, put salt in the pan before the salt seasoning can reduce the amount of salt; use dipping dish, such as white cut, white burning and other cooking methods can reduce salt intake; do not use vegetable juice to fish rice can reduce the amount of oil and salt intake; in addition to salt, also need to reduce the "invisible salt" intake, such as monosodium glutamate, chicken essence, soy sauce, oyster sauce, aged vinegar and other sauce sodium content is very high, many food additives such as pigment, preservatives are in the form of sodium salt, packaging sodium content is not to be underestimated.


? ?? ?? ?? ?2。 controlling the intake of total dietary energy and saturated fatty acids. reasonable total dietary energy adapted to physical activity and metabolism. If overweight, obese or waist bump, it is recommended to consult a nutritionist for standardized metabolic conditioning and chronic disease management, do not blindly lose weight, or even use some weight loss products. Eat less animal fat, such as butter, fat, meat skin and so on, reduce the intake of saturated fatty acids.


? ?? ?? ?? ?3。 Balanced nutrition, do not mistakenly believe that "high blood pressure patients cannot eat meat" rumors, appropriate amount of protein supplement, increase the intake of nutrients such as potassium, magnesium, calcium and other beneficial to reduce blood pressure, appropriate amount of fresh vegetables and fruits, each eat 8 to 1 jin of fresh vegetables (leafy vegetables and melon vegetables mainly),1 to 2 fruits,250 to 500 milliliters of skim or low fat milk, or sour milk.


? ?? ?? ?? ?4。 Eating more food with abundant dietary fiber and ensuring smooth stool can reduce the occurrence of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients with hypertension. Black rice, brown rice, whole wheat and other coarse grain, mung bean, corn, buckwheat and other miscellaneous grain, green leaves and pod vegetables, apple, peach, pear, dragon fruit, kiwi fruit and other fruits, these are good sources of dietary fiber, it is recommended to choose more.


? ?? ?? ?? ?5。 Quit smoking and limit alcohol. Both smoke and alcohol can reduce the efficacy of antihypertensive drugs, resulting in poor blood pressure control, and thus lead to poor prognosis. (Media Reporter, Mr Leung Chiu-yee, Mr Timothy TAI Nai-wai)